Thursday, June 05, 2014

Greek Grammar in Greek, an example

I have been meaning to compose a post like this for some time, but finally I took the time to do it. Below you will find the text of 1 Peter 3:18, and then a dialogue format discussion between Theodore and Ioannes in which Theodore quizzes Ioannes on the grammatical analysis of the verse.

My sources for grammatical terms are eclectic, and at a few points I have perhaps taken my own liberties. I am far from an expert on ancient Greek grammatical terminology! At the end of the Greek text, I have printed an English version for comparison (though the translation is not always direct). As always, your comments, thoughts, and suggestions are welcome.


ὅτι καὶ Χριστὸς ἅπαξ περὶ ἁμαρτιῶν ἔπαθεν, δίκαιος ὑπὲρ ἀδίκων, ἵνα ὑμᾶς προσαγάγῃ τῷ θεῷ, θανατωθεὶς μὲν σαρκὶ ζῳοποιηθεὶς δὲ πνεύματι·


Θεο· πόσαι προτάσεις ἐν τῷ ῥήματί ἐστι;
Ἰοα· ἔστι πρότασις κεφαλαία, πρότασις ὑποτεταγμένη, καὶ δύο πφράσεις μετοχικαί.
Θεο· τί μέρος τοῦ λόγου ἐστι τὸ ὅτι;
Ἰοα· τὸ ὅτι ἐστι σύνδεσμος τῆς αἰτίας.
Θεο· ἀναμερίσον τὴν λέξιν Χριστός.
Ἰοα· τὸ Χριστός ἐστιν ὀνομαστικός, ἑνικός, ἀρσενικός.
Θεο· διὰ τί ἐπὶ τῆς ὀνομαστικῆς πτώσεως;
Ἰοα· διότι ἐστί τὸ ὑποκείμενον.
Θεο· τί ἐστι τὸ κατηγόρημα τοῦτο τοῦ κώλου;
Ἰοα· οὐκ ἔστι κατηγόρημα.
Θεο· τί οὐκ ἔστι κατηγόρημα ἐν τῷ κώλῳ;
Ἰοα· ὃτι τὸ ῥῆμα ἐστι ἀμεταβατικόν.
Θεο· τί μερὸς τοῦ λόγου ἐστί τὸ ἃπαξ;
Ἰοα· ἐπίρρημά ἐστι, τοῦ χρόνου.
Θεο· τί ἐστι τὸ περὶ ἁμαρτιῶν;
Ἰοα· προθετικὴ φράσις ἐστίν.
Θεο· ποῖα;
Ἰοα· ὡς ἐπίρρημα.

Θεο· τὸ ῥῆμα ἔπαθεν, ἀναμερίσον
Ἰοα· ἔστι χρόνος ἀόριστος, ἐνεργητική ἢ κοινή διαθέσις, ὁριστική ἐγκλίσις, τρίτον πρώσοπον, ἑνικός. τὸ παράγωγον τοῦ ῥήματος ἐστι πάσχω. ἐν τῇ ἀγλικῇ δύναται “to suffer”.
Θεο· τί ὄψις ἐστί;
Ἰοα· κατὰ τὴν ὄψιν, ἐστι συντελική, διότι κατὰ τὸν χρόνον ἀόριστός ἐστιν.
Θεο· τί ἐστι ὁ χρόνος τοῦ ἔργου;
Ἰοα· τὸ ἔργον ἐστί ἐν τῷ χρόνῳ τῷ παρόντι.
Θεο· τί πτώσις ἐστι τὸ δίκαιος;
Ἰοα· ὀνομαστικὴ πτώσις ἐστίν.
Θεο· τὶ μερὸς τοῦ λόγου;
Ἰοα· ἔστι ὄνομα ἢ ἐπίθετον.
Θεο· διὰ τί ἐστι ἐπὶ τῆς ὀνομαστικῆς;
Ἰοα· ὃτι ἐστὶ ἐν παραθέσει τῷ Χριστός.
Θεο· τί ἐστι τὸ ὑπὲρ ἀδίκων;
Ἰοα· προθετικὴ φράσις ἐστίν.
Θεο· ἀναμερίσον ἀδίκων.
Ἰοα· γενική πτώσις, ἀρσενικόν γενὸς, πληθυντικός ἀριθμός.
Θεο· διὰ τί οὐ οὐδέτερον ἢ θηλυκόν;
Ἰοα· ἡ ἔννοια ἐστί τῶν πρωσόπων, ἢ ἀνθρώπων, ἄρα τὸ γενὸς κατὰ τὴν γραμματικὴν ἀρσενικόν ἐστιν.

Θεο· τὶ μερὸς τοῦ λόγου ἐστί τὸ ἵνα
Ἰοα· τὸ ἵνα ἐστί σύνδεσμος.
Θεο· τί σημαίνει;
Ἰοα· ὑποτεταγμένη φράσις τῆς προαιρέσεως.
Θεο· τί ἐστι τὸ ὑμᾶς;
Ἰοα· ἐστι ἀντωνυμία πρὸ τοῦ ὑποκειμένου, ἐπὶ τῆς αἰτιατικῆς πτώσεως.
Θεο· διὰ τί ἐπὶ τῆς αἰτιατικῆς;
Ἰοα· διότι ἐστί τὸ κατηγόρημα τοῦ ῥήματος.
Θεο· ἀναμερίσον τὸ ῥῆμα.
Ἰοα· τὸ προσαγάγῃ ἐστι ἀόριστος, ἐνεργεία, ὑποτακτικὴ ἐγκλίσις, τρὶτον, ἑνικός. τὸ παράγωγον τοῦ ῥήματός ἐστι προσάγω. ἐν τῇ ἀγκλικῇ διαλέκτῳ δύναται “to bring or lead”.
Θεο· καὶ τί ἐστι τῷ
Ἰοα· ἔστι τὸ ἄρθρον, δοτική, ἀρσενικόν, ἑνικός.
Θεο· πῶς γινώσκεις οὐ οὐδέτερόν ἐστιν;
Ἰοα· ὃτι συντάσσει τῷ ὀνόματι θεῷ
Θεο· ποῖα δοτική;
Ἰοα· ἔστι δοτικὴ τοῦ ἐπιτευκτικοῦ, ἢ τοῦ κινήματος.

Θεο· τί εἰσιν αἰ δύο μετοχοί;
Ἰοα· τὸ θανατωθείς καὶ τὸ θῳοποηθείς εἰσιν.
Θεο· τί ἐστι ἡ σχέσις τοῦ μὲν δὲ, ἢ τί σημαίνει;
Ἰοα· δίανοιαν καὶ ἀντιδιάνοιαν σημαίνει.
Θεο· τὰς μετοχὰς ἀναμερίσον.
Ἰοα· τὸ θανατωθείς ἐστι ἀόριστος, ἑαυτικὴ διαθέσις (ἢ μεσότης ἐν τῷ πάθῳ), ἑνικός, ὀνομαστικός. ὡς καὶ τὸ θανατωθείς ἐστιν.
Θεο· τί ἡ ὄψις;
Ἰοα· σεντελείωσις.
Θεο· τίνι ὀνόματι συντάσσουσιν αὗται αἱ μετοχαί
Ἰοα· τῷ ὀνόματι Χριστός συντάσσουσιν.
Θεο· αἱ μετοχοὶ ὡς ἐπίθετα ἢ ὡς ἐπιρρήματα δύνανται;
Ἰοα· ὡς ἐπιρρήματα.
Θεο· καὶ πῶς δύνανται;
Ἰοα· ὁ τρόπος τοῦ ῥήματος.
Θεο· ἐπὶ τίνος πτώσεως εἰσίν τὸ σαρκὶ καὶ τὸ πνεύματι;
Ἰοα· ἐπὶ τῆς δοτικῆς.
Θεο· καὶ τί δύνανται;
Ἰοα· ἡ δοτικὴ τοῦ τόπου.


How many clauses are in this sentence?
There is a main clause, a subordinate clause, and two participial phrases
What part of speech is ὅτι?
It is a causal conjunction
Parse Χριστὸς
Χριστὸς is nominative, singular, masculine.
Why is it in the nominative?
Because it is the subject.
What is the object of this clause?
There is no object.
Why is there no object?
Because the verb is intransitive.
What part of speech is ἅπαξ?
It is an adverb, of time.
What is περὶ ἁμαρτιῶν?
It is a prepositional phrase.
Of what kind?

Parse the verb ἔπαθεν.
It is aorist tense, active voice, indicative mood, 3rd person, singular. The head verb is πάσχω. It translates to “suffer”.
What aspect is it?
It is perfective in aspect, because it is aorist in tense.
What time is the action?
The action is in past time.
What case is δίκαιος?
It is nominative case.
What part of speech?
It is noun or adjective.
Why is it in the nominative?
Because it is in apposition to Χριστός.
What is ὑπὲρ ἀδίκων?
It is a prepositional phrase.
Parse ἀδίκων.
It is genitive, masculine, plural.
Why not neuter or feminine?
The meaning here is personal. Therefore the grammatical gender will be masculine.

What part of speech is ἵνα?
It is a conjunction.
What does it signify?
A subordinate clause of purpose.
What is ὑμᾶς?
It is a personal pronoun, in the accusative case.
Why is it in the accusative?
It is the direct object of the verb.
Parse the verb.
προσαγάγῃ is aorist active voice, subjunctive mood, 3rd singular. The head verb is προσάγω, it translates as “to bring or lead”
What is τῷ?
It is the article. It is dative, masculine, singular.
How do you know it is not neuter?
Because it agrees with the noun θεῷ.
What type of dative is this?
It is a dative of advantage, or of motion

What are the two participles?
They are θανατωθείς and ζῳοποιηθείς.
What is the function of μὲν with δὲ?
They indicate a point-counterpoint.
Parse these participles.
θανατωθείς is aorist, middle with passive force, singular, nominative. As is ζῳοποιηθείς.
What is the aspect?
Which noun do these participles agree with and modify?
They modify Χριστός.
Are they adjectival or adverbial?
They are adverbial.
With what sense?
They indicate the manner of the verb.
What case are σαρκὶ and πνεύματι?
They are in the dative case.
With what sense?
They are datives of sphere.

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